SCS Home Study Course: Chapter 13

Principles of Strength and Conditioning


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Anthony Cuoco, DPT, MS, CSCS

Aeon Physical Therapy, Monroe, CT

Adjunct Faculty, Department of Exercise Science

Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT



By the completion of this chapter, the therapist will be able to:

•    Understand and describe basic muscle physiology, including muscle fiber types, inherent qualities and recruitment patterns, as it relates to aerobic and anaerobic exercise demands.

•   Understand and describe basic energy systems used by skeletal muscle for exercise.

•   Understand and describe metabolic and structural adaptations to both aerobic and anaerobic exercise training

•   Understand and describe both central and peripheral cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise.

•   Understand and describe endocrine/hormonal adaptations to exercise.

•   Describe basic exercise testing modalities for aerobic capacity, strength, power and agility.

•   Apply knowledge of physiological and metabolic adaptations to exercise for the design and implementation of aerobic and anaerobic training programs.




I.      Introduction

II.     Muscular System

        a. Muscle fiber types

        b. Muscle fiber recruitment

III.    Neuromuscular System

IV.    Neuromuscular Adaptations to Anaerobic Conditioning

        a. Hypertrophy, changes in fiber size and fiber type transitions

        b. Other structural and metabolic changes in anaerobic training

        c.  Bone and other connective tissue adaptations to anaerobic (and aerobic) training

V.     Energy Systems and Metabolic Adaptations to Training

        a. Energy systems

VI.    Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise

        a. Aerobic training adaptations

        b. Anaerobic training adaptations

VII.  Concurrent Aerobic and Anaerobic Training Considerations

VIII. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Responses to Exercise

        a. Respiratory adaptations to aerobic training

IX.   Endocrine Responses to Exercise

        a. Hormonal control of glucose metabolism

        b. Hormonal control of fat metabolism

        c. Hormonal control of electrolyte balance

        d. Endocrine responses and adaptations to anaerobic exercise

X.     Strength and Conditioning Program Design and Implementation

        a. Aerobic Training

            i.    Testing for endurance/aerobic capacity

            ii.   Principles of aerobic/endurance training

        b. Basic aerobic/endurance training programs

XI.    Anaerobic and Resistance Training

        a. Testing for strength, power and anaerobic capacity

            i.   One repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing

            ii.  Maximum power testing

            iii. Local muscular endurance tests

        b. Resistance and anaerobic training programs

            i. Exercise modes and applications

               1.   Free weights vs. machines

               2.   Exercise selection

               3.   Instability and resistance training

               4.   Training frequency

               5.   Training volume

               6.   Concentric and eccentric muscle action

               7.   Resistance/load intensity

               8.   Rest intervals

               9.   Circuit training

               10. Movement velocity

               11. Hypertrophy

               12. Periodization

XII.  Plyometrics

XIII. Speed and Agility

        a. Testing for speed

        b. Testing for agility

The completion of this course does not guarantee that the purchaser will pass the SCS examination.